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What are types of marriages mentioned in Manusmirthi?
Hinduism is based on eternal values of Vedas and this philosophy is well explained in six shastras and Manusmirti etc., These scripts are formulated by rishis like Manu, Atri, Kambadh, Matang, Patanjali, Vashisth Vyas Muni, who were master philosophers of Vedas, practiced ashtang yoga, become conscious of God and Veda mantras in their heart. Marriage ceremony is a religious function. In this holy Yajyen ritual, relevant Veda mantras are chanted by a learned person who knows Vedas.
Pannigrahna custom is performed when bridegroom takes hand of bride, while reciting Veda mantras.
In shloka 3/21, of Manusmrithi states,eight types of marriages, but of eight last two are forbidden:
i. Brahma Vivaha (marriage) –This type of marriage is self decided marriage by girl. In this girl is married while performing holy Yajyen with the best learned boy searched by parents or herself and without any dowry. Goods or articles, clothes etc., are not offered to the bride or groom.
ii. Deva Vivaha - This type of marriage is performed with a holy Yajyen with number of learned gurus.In this marriage some goods or articles, clothes etc., are offered whereas in above stated Braham marriage nothing is donated.
iii. Aarsa Vivaha - In this type of marriage the father of bridegroom takes nothing or does not give away anything and marriage is performed with a holy Yajyen ceremony.
iv. Prajapathya Vivaha - In this type of marriage a holy Yajyen, learned person and parents do marriage and advice both (the bridegroom and the bride) to lead their family life happily with religious morality. All the eardely learned persons who are married bless the newly married couple.
v. Ashura Vivaha - In this type of marriage holy Yajyen ceremony is performed and the parents of bride hands over some dowry and articles to bridegroom. In this type of marriage usually blessings by the elderly learned persons is not done due to the involvement of dowry system.
vi. Gandharva Vivaha - In this type of marriage there is no Yajyen ceremony or anything of that sort. The presence of any other person except girl and the boy is noted here.
vii. Rakshas Vivaha - In this type of marriage a girl is forcefully taken away from her parents or relatives and marriage is performed. In this type of marriage is not at all admitted or permited by learned persons and is considered unreligious.
viii. Paishacha Vivaha - This type of marriage occurs in a lonely place if a girl is met while sleeping or she
is mad etc., and someone offend her modesty. It is not admitted by learned persons and is unreligious.