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Its better to use US debit card rather than a US credit card in India. because there will be lot of charges for your trasactiona as financial charges, international transactional chares, etc..
regarding your questions one by one:
1. they will consider that days conversion rate and will charge you.. it is same for debit and credit card.. but as i told you there will be some extra charges if you use credit card.
2. the additional charges will be same as i mentioned before financial charges, international transactional chares, etc..
3. I prefer Debit card to use that also if it is very much neccessary..
4. what you told is right.. we cant carry more cash with us.. so its better to trasfer to our indian accounts before travelling to india or you can withdraw from icici or ingvysya, HSBC bank ATM's but again it is same as westren Union.
hope this info helps you..